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مبانی استقلال قضایی

 یکی از اصولی که نقش اساسی در اجرای صحیح عدالت دارد ، اصل استقلال قضایی است . استقلال قضایی در اصطلاح عبارت است از اینکه، دادرسان در صدور رأی، تنها قانون و وجدان را حاكم بر اعمال خود قرار دهند و توجهی به دستورها ، نظرها و خواسته های دیگران نداشته باشند. از هیچ مانع و رادعی نهراسند و بیم انفصال، تنزیل رتبه و مقام، تغییر محل خدمت و موقعیت شغلی به خود راه ندهند. و به عبارت دیگر استقلال قضایی در معنای آزادی قاضی از هر‌گونه مداخله و تأثیر‌پذیری از صاحبان قدرت و اصحاب دعوا است .
اصل استقلال قضایی در احکام شرع و اسناد بین‌المللی و نظام‌های حقوقی جهان نیز مورد پذیرش واقع شده است و ضمن توجه در اسناد حقوق بشری در اسناد مهمی چون اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر  و میثاق بین المللی حقوق مدنی و سیاسی  نیز به آن تصریح شده است .
ارتقاء استقلال قوه قضاییه و نظام قضایی می‌تواند نقش مهمی در تحقق عدالت و تضمین حقوق و آزادی‌های اساسی اشخاص ایفا کند که قضات بعنوان تصمیم گیرندگان حیات ، آزادی، حقوق ، تکالیف، اموال و دارایی‌های شهروندان است که در چارچوب همین دستگاه قضایی به فعالیت می پردازند .

استقلال قضایی باید كامل و همه جانبه باشد و در برابر قوه مجریه ، در برابر مسئولان دستگاه قضا و حتی در برابر آحاد جامعه استقلال خود را حفظ نماید.
1. استقلال از قوه مجریه و دولت
قاضی باید در برابر خواسته¬های مقامات قوه مجریه و مسئولان اجرایی استقلال كامل داشته باشد و در برابر تهدیدهای این قوه مصون باشد به نحوی که وعده¬ها و تطمیع¬ها در آن اثر نکند. ضمن اینکه در صورت لزوم دولت نیز باید مانند ضعیف ترین و بی پناه ¬ترین افراد کشور، هنگام نقض تعهد یا تخلف از قوانین در دادگاه¬های عمومی، طرف دعوی قرار گیرد.
2. استقلال از مسئولان قوه قضائیه
مسئولان قوه قضائیه تنها می¬توانند بر عملكرد دادگاه¬ها نظارت اداری داشته باشند؛ اما سفارش، پیش داوری و اظهار نظرهای خاص از سوی  مسئولان و دست اندركاران قوه قضائیه می تواند ناقض استقلال قضایی محسوب شود.
3. استقلال از افکار عمومی و جامعه
هرچند در جامعه دموكراسی، افكار عمومی دارای ارزش بالایی است؛ اما تا وقتی که این افکار و نظرها به شکل قانون  تدوین نشده ، نبایستی در رأی قاضی موثر واقع شود و بعبارتی قاضی نباید فرد بی-گناهی را به لحاظ تسكین افكار عمومی، بازداشت و یا محكوم نماید و یا به عكس، فرد مجرمی را به لحاظ تسكین افکار مردم ، تبرئه یا از مجازات معاف نماید.
4. استقلال از سایر مقامات
استقلال قضایی در برابر همه مقامات یكسان می¬باشد ؛ لذا این استقلال نباید در برابر اعضای محترم مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام ، خبرگان رهبری ، شورای نگهبان، نمایندگان مجلس، مراجع قضائی و غیره مخدوش شود .

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